Borneo Journal of Pharmacy <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Title:&nbsp;</strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy<br><strong>ISSN: </strong><a href="">2621-4814</a> (Online)<br><strong>Subject: </strong>Pharmacy<br> <strong>Frequency: </strong>Quarterly (4 issues per year in February, May, August, and November) onward <strong>February 2020</strong><br><strong>Indexed at: </strong><a href="">EMBASE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">SINTA 2</a>,<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href=";search_type=kws&amp;search_field=doi">Dimensions</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, <a href="">SHERPA RoMEO</a>, <a href="">Crossref,</a>&nbsp;<a href="">ICI</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">ResearchBib</a>, <a href=";user=R7G787AAAAAJ">Google Scholar,</a> <a href="">Garuda,</a> and more<br> <strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.33084/bjop</a><br><strong>Archive preservation: </strong><a href="[]=repoId:IOS6026">Indonesia OneSearch,</a><strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="">GARUDA Ristekdikti</a><br> <strong>Publisher: </strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Researches and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a><br> <strong>Editor in Chief: </strong><a href="">Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama</a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (<em>Borneo J Pharm</em>, ISSN: <em><a href="">2621-4814</a></em> (online)) is an International Journal managed by the&nbsp;<strong><a title="Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>&nbsp;and published four times a year (in February, May, August, and November) onward February 2020 by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Researches and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>, contains articles of research and critical analysis studies in various topics of pharmaceutical science, including&nbsp;<strong>Pharmacology-Toxicology</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Pharmaceutical</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Analytical Pharmacy-Medicinal Chemistry</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Microbiology Pharmacy</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Natural Product Development</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Clinical-Community Pharmacy</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Management Pharmacy</strong>; and other Pharmacy aspects.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href=""><img src="/public/site/images/adminjournal/SINTA3.png" width="84" height="30"></a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Borneo Journal of Pharmacy is accredited at&nbsp;<strong>"<a href="">SINTA 2</a>"</strong>&nbsp;until February 2025 by the Minister of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia No: 148/M/KPT/2020.</p> ​Institute for Researches and Community Services Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya en-US Borneo Journal of Pharmacy 2621-4814 <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors continue to retain the copyright to the article if the article is published in the Borneo Journal of Pharmacy. They will also retain the publishing rights to the article without any restrictions.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Any article on the copyright is retained by the author(s).</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The author grants the journal, right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share work with an acknowledgement of the work authors and initial publications in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into a separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of published articles of work (eg, post-institutional repository) or publish it in a book, with acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their websites) prior to and during the submission process, as can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The article and any associated published material is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</li> </ol> Cover, Content, and Editorial Note from Borneo J Pharm Vol. 3 No. 3 August 2020 <p style="text-align: justify;">Alhamdulillahirabbil ‘Alamin. The next edition of Borneo Journal of Pharmacy (Borneo J Pharm), has been published in August 2020.&nbsp;Starting from this edition, Borneo J Pharm increases the frequency of publishing four times a year. This change aims to improve the circulation of the best articles published by Borneo J Pharm. Also, starting from this edition, Borneo J Pharm applying the publish-as-you-go issue to present the title of the article that has been received as early as possible in order to increase the chances of readability and quotation of articles in Borneo J Pharm.&nbsp;This edition contains six articles consisting of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Microbiology Pharmacy, Natural Product Development, and Clinical-Community Pharmacy. This edition includes writings from five countries including Indonesia, India, Libya, Nigeria, and the Russian Federation. The authors come from several institutions, including Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Kesehatan Senior Medan, University of Tripoli, National Centre for Diabetes and Endocrinology of Libya, Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute, Kebbi State University of Science and Technology of Aliero, Federal Medical Centre of Birnin-Kebbi, Shri Gopichand College of Pharmacy, Meerut Institute of Engineering and Technology, NKBR College of Pharmacy and Research Centre, Universitas 17 Agustus 1945 Jakarta, and Universitas Esa Unggul.&nbsp;The editorial board would like to thank all editors and reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope that all parties, especially the contributors of the articles, could re-participate for the publication in the next edition in November 2020.</p> Chief Editor of Borneo J Pharm ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 3 3 10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1648 Phytochemical Screening and Anti-Hyperuricemia Activity Test In Vivo of Ethanolic Extract of Shallot (Allium cepa L.) Skin <p style="text-align: justify;">Uric acid is the final product of purine metabolism that will be excreted through urine, feces, and sweat. Excessive production of uric acid can cause hyperuricemia, known as gout. The skin of shallots (<em>Allium cepa</em> L.) is one of the household wastes that are very rarely used by the community. Ethanol extract of shallot skin (EESS) was tested for phytochemical screening and anti-hyperuricemia activity using potassium oxonate. Mice were divided into five groups (Allopurinol, Na-CMC, EESS 200 mg/kg BW, 300 mg/kg BW, and 400 mg/kg BW) and uric acid levels were observed at 2-hour intervals for six hours. Phytochemical screening shows that EESS has potential compounds in the treatment of gout. Tests to reduce uric acid levels showed that EESS has better potential than allopurinol at concentrations of 300 mg/kg BW and 400 mg/kg BW after six hours of induction in reducing uric acid levels.</p> Syahrina Syahrina Vivi Asfianti Kasta Gurning Iksen Iksen ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 3 3 146 151 10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1365 Phytochemicals, Nutritional Value, Antioxidant, and Anticoagulant Activity of Lactuca sativa L. Leaves and Stems <p style="text-align: justify;">The main ingredient in the daily salad dish is the leaves of <em>Lactuca sativa</em>, while the stems are usually discarded and not eaten. This study was conducted to compare the stems and leaves of two selected <em>L. sativa</em> varieties (<em>L. sativa var. longifolia</em> L. and <em>L. sativa var. capitata</em> L.) related to the preliminary phytochemical investigation, nutrient content, DPPH assay, and <em>in vitro</em> anticoagulant activity by determination of prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). The findings revealed almost the same phytoconstituents in the leaves and stems of each variety, such as terpenoids, flavonoids, coumarins, and others. Exceptionally, tannins have only been detected in the leaves. Compared to the stems, the leaves of both varieties showed statistically significantly higher levels of raw protein and raw fat. For the DPPH assay, the leaves of both varieties have a statistically significantly higher antioxidant activity than the stems. The leaves and stem extract of the two selected varieties showed a significant prolongation of PT (P &lt;0.05 vs. NS= 12:30 s). On the other hand, the aPTT test showed a significant increase in aPTT (P &lt;0.05 vs. NS = 32:44 s) in the stem extract of both varieties, whereas there was no statistically significant increase in aPTT in the leaves of both varieties. Both parts of each variety have a diversity of phytochemicals and nutrients. The leaves of both varieties have a higher antioxidant activity than the stems. While the stems had higher anticoagulant activity than the leaves.</p> Hanin Nafed Mughrbi Abdurazag Abdussalam Auzi Hamza Maghrbi ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 3 3 152 161 10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1394 Microscopical Investigation of Sideritis taurica <p style="text-align: justify;">This research presents the results of the morphological-anatomical study of grass organs above ground (leaves, stems, and flowers) from <em>Sideritis taurica </em>Steph. ex Willd. from the Lamiaceae family. The range of distribution of this species covers Eastern Europe, including Crimea, Caucasus. This plant is commonly found as an ornamental plant and grows in the southern and central regions of Russia. The purpose of this study is the anatomical and morphological study of the vegetative organs of <em>S. taurica</em> and the formation of diagnostic signs for reliable plant identification. The research material used was <em>S. taurica</em> herbicide samples collected in Crimea on the slopes of Mount Ay-Petri. Plant material is fixed in the glycerin : water system in a ratio of 1 : 1. Cross-section of stems and leaves is carried out using blades. The study was conducted with the morphological-anatomical method. The results obtained indicate the anatomical structure of the lamina, stem, and flower of the plant that has been studied. Anomocytic types of stomatal devices, unicellular and multicellular trichomes, located on the upper and lower sides of the leaf, as well as on the corolla stem and epidermis, have been discovered. The study carried out is part of the <em>S. taurica</em> complex pharmacognostic study.</p> Fatima Kazbekovna Serebryanaya Irina Konovalova ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 3 3 162 169 10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1524 Antibiotics Resistance Pattern of Coliform Bacteria Isolated from Slaughterhouse Wastewater in Jega Town, Kebbi State, Nigeria <p style="text-align: justify;">Wastewater is an essential reservoir of pathogenic bacteria, which include resistant strains. This study determined the antibiotics resistance pattern of Coliform bacteria isolated from slaughterhouse wastewater in Jega local government. Five different samples of wastewater from different locations of a slaughterhouse were collected using standard sample collection techniques. Coliform bacteria were isolated using the standard microbiological method. The total bacterial count was determined using plate count agar. Suspected coliforms were identified based on morphological and biochemical tests. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the standard disc diffusion method. The highest bacterial count (8.4x10<sup>2</sup> CFU/ml) was observed from the wastewater collection point, and the lowest bacterial (1.2x10<sup>2</sup> CFU/ml) count from the slaughtering point. Three Gram-negative bacteria, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas </em><em>aeruginosa</em>,&nbsp;and <em>Enterobacter aerogenes,</em> were identified<em>. Escherichia coli</em>&nbsp;was the most frequently isolated in slaughterhouse wastewater 39 (45.8%). Among the antibiotics tested against isolated bacteria, Septrin was the most resistant antibiotics recorded against <em>E. coli</em> and <em>E. aerogenes</em> with 84.61% and 88.89% resistant, respectively. <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>&nbsp;was found to show higher resistance to Chloramphenicol and Septrin with 84.21% resistance each. The occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria from slaughterhouse wastewater showed the risks associated with antimicrobial drug resistance transferred from food-producing animals to humans. Management concerns, such as local government health officers and community development officers, should increase the sensitization of slaughterhouse workers by organizing conferences or conducting radio talk to educates these slaughterhouse workers on the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater and health risk associated with antimicrobial-drug resistance transferred from animals to humans.</p> Adamu Almustapha Aliero Namadina Hassan Jega Ahmad Ibrahim Bagudo Sahabi Sule Manga Kabiru Hussaini ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 3 3 170 178 10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1530 Advantages of Herbal Over Allopathic Medicine in the Management of Kidney and Urinary Stones Disease <p style="text-align: justify;">Kidney and urinary stone disease (Nephrolithiasis and urolithiasis) are the condition where urinary stones or calculi are formed in the urinary tract. The problem of urinary stones is very ancient; these stones are found in all parts of the urinary tract, kidney, ureters, and the urinary bladder and may vary considerably in size. It is a common disease estimated to occur in approximately 12% of the population, with a recurrence rate of 70-81% in males and 47-60% in females. The treatment of kidney and urinary stone diseases such as a western (allopathy) medicine and surgery is now in trends. However, most people preferred plant-based (herbal) therapy because of the overuse of allopathic drugs, which results in a higher incidence rate of adverse or severe side effects. Therefore, people every year turn to herbal therapy because they believe plant-based medicine is free from undesirable side effects, although herbal medicines are generally considered to be safe and effective. In the present article, an attempt has been made to emphasize an herbal therapy is better than allopathic therapy for the management of the kidney and urinary stone disease.</p> Saurabh Nimesh Vrish Dhwaj Ashwlayan Rubi Rani Om Prakash ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 3 3 179 189 10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1415 Assessment of Drug Therapy Problems Among Type 2 Diabetes Patients with Hypertension Comorbidity in Indonesia <p style="text-align: justify;">Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a major chronic disease that affects a large number of people worldwide. Hypertension is a common disease comorbidity among T2DM patients, and often those patients received polypharmacy and complex treatment in long term duration. This condition may lead to an increased risk of drug therapy problems (DTPs). This study aimed to assess and determine potential drug therapy problems in type 2 diabetic patients with hypertension comorbidity. Retrospective cross-sectional design was conducted in a hospital setting, especially data sources from the prescription of ambulatory T2DM patients with hypertension. A total of 190 patients were studied. More than half of the participants were female (53.68%). The majority age range of participants was 50-59 years (46.84%). Almost all antidiabetic agents were prescribed as polypharmacy (73.16%). Metformin was the most antidiabetic agent prescribed as monotherapy and combination therapy (63.16%). Almost all antihypertensive agents were prescribed as polypharmacy (63.26%). Amlodipine was the most antihypertensive agent prescribed as monotherapy and combination therapy (34.74%). Among the study participants, 56.84% have at least one of DTPs. Adverse drug reaction was the most frequent (47.22%), followed by ineffective drug therapy (29.63%). Since the potential of DTPs in T2DM patients with hypertension comorbidity is relatively high, early identifying, resolving, and preventing drug therapy problems by the pharmacist is needed to achieve goals of treatment.</p> Julaeha Julaeha Ery Fudjiati Aprilita Rina Yanti Eff ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 3 3 190 198 10.33084/bjop.v3i3.1359