Borneo Journal of Pharmacy <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Title:&nbsp;</strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy<br><strong>ISSN: </strong><a href="">2621-4814</a> (Online)<br><strong>Subject: </strong>Pharmacy<br> <strong>Frequency: </strong>Quarterly (4 issues per year in February, May, August, and November) onward <strong>February 2020</strong><br><strong>Indexed at: </strong><a href="">EMBASE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">SINTA 2</a>,<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href=";search_type=kws&amp;search_field=doi">Dimensions</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, <a href="">SHERPA RoMEO</a>, <a href="">Crossref,</a>&nbsp;<a href="">ICI</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">ResearchBib</a>, <a href=";user=R7G787AAAAAJ">Google Scholar,</a> <a href="">Garuda,</a> and more<br> <strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.33084/bjop</a><br><strong>Archive preservation: </strong><a href="[]=repoId:IOS6026">Indonesia OneSearch,</a><strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="">GARUDA Ristekdikti</a><br> <strong>Publisher: </strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Researches and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a><br> <strong>Editor in Chief: </strong><a href="">Syahrida Dian Ardhany</a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (<em>Borneo J Pharm</em>, ISSN: <em><a href="">2621-4814</a></em> (online)) is an International Journal managed by the&nbsp;<strong><a title="Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>&nbsp;and published four times a year (in February, May, August, and November) onward February 2020 by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Researches and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>, contains articles of research and critical analysis studies in various topics of pharmaceutical science, including&nbsp;<strong>Pharmacology-Toxicology</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Pharmaceutical</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Analytical Pharmacy-Medicinal Chemistry</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Microbiology Pharmacy</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Natural Product Development</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Clinical-Community Pharmacy</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Management Pharmacy</strong>; and other Pharmacy aspects.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href=""><img src="/public/site/images/adminjournal/SINTA3.png" width="84" height="30"></a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Borneo Journal of Pharmacy is accredited at&nbsp;<strong>"<a href="">SINTA 2</a>"</strong>&nbsp;until February 2025 by the Minister of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia No: 148/M/KPT/2020.</p> en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors continue to retain the copyright to the article if the article is published in the Borneo Journal of Pharmacy. They will also retain the publishing rights to the article without any restrictions.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Any article on the copyright is retained by the author(s).</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The author grants the journal, right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share work with an acknowledgement of the work authors and initial publications in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into a separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of published articles of work (eg, post-institutional repository) or publish it in a book, with acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their websites) prior to and during the submission process, as can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The article and any associated published material is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</li> </ol> (Syahrida Dian Ardhany) (Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama) Mon, 30 Nov 2020 12:10:26 +0000 OJS 60 Cover, Content, and Editorial Note from Borneo J Pharm Vol. 3 No. 4 November 2020 <p style="text-align: justify;">Alhamdulillahirabbil ‘Alamin. The next edition of <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (<em>Borneo J Pharm</em>), has been published in November 2020. Starting from this edition, <em>Borneo J Pharm</em> increases the frequency of publishing four times a year. This change aims to improve the circulation of the best articles published by <em>Borneo J Pharm</em>. Also, starting from this edition, <em>Borneo J Pharm</em> applying the publish-as-you-go issue to present the title of the article that has been received as early as possible in order to increase the chances of readability and quotation of articles in <em>Borneo J Pharm</em>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This edition contains ten articles consisting of Pharmacology-Toxicology, Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry, Analytical Pharmacy-Medicinal Chemistry, Microbiology Pharmacy, Natural Product Development, Clinical-Community Pharmacy, and Management Pharmacy. This edition includes writings from four countries including Indonesia, India, Malaysia, and Sudan. The authors come from several institutions, including Indubhai Patel College of Pharmacy and Research Center, SAL Institute of Pharmacy, Universitas Lambung Mangkurat, Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kebun Raya Banua Kalimantan Selatan, Universitas Kristen Krida Wacana, University of Gezira, International Islamic University Malaysia, Universitas Mandala Waluya, Universitas Islam Bandung, Universitas Halu Oleo, Universitas Garut, Universitas Bali Internasional, and Akademi Farmasi Surabaya.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">The editorial board would like to thank all editors and reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope that all parties, especially the contributors of the articles, could re-participate for publication in the next edition in February 2021.</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Role of Cannabinoid Receptors in Psychological Disorder <p style="text-align: justify;">Cannabinoid receptors, located throughout the body, are part of the endocannabinoid system. Cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptors are G protein-coupled receptors present from the early stages of gestation, which is involved in various physiological processes, including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory. Due to the lipophilic nature of cannabinoids, it was initially thought that these compounds exert several biological effects by disrupting the cell membrane nonspecifically. Recent biochemical and behavioral findings have demonstrated that blockade of CB1 receptors engenders antidepressant-like neurochemical changes (increases in extracellular levels of monoamines in cortical but not subcortical brain regions) and behavioral effects consistent with antidepressant/antistress activity. We aim to define various roles of cannabinoid receptors in modulating signaling pathways and association with several pathophysiological conditions.</p> Ambika Nand Jha, Dhaval M Patel ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Pharmacognostic Study and Antioxidant Activity of Mundar (Garcinia forbesii King.) leaves from Banua Botanical Gardens of South Kalimantan <p style="text-align: justify;">Mundar (<em>Garcinia forbesii</em> King.) is a plant from South Kalimantan. This plant has chemical contents that have potential as medicine. The purpose of this study is to provide a pharmacognostic picture of a specific, nonspecific and determine the antioxidant activity of <em>G. forbesii</em> leaves. Specific parameters include organoleptic, microscopic testing, thin-layer chromatography profiles, and phytochemical screening. Nonspecific parameters include total ash content, acid insoluble ash content, drying loss, water-soluble extract content, and ethanol-soluble extract content. Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method based on IC<sub>50</sub> values. Specific parameter test results are green powder, characteristic odor, and sour taste. Microscopic tests showed stomata, upper epidermis, lower epidermis, cell walls, xylem, phloem, palisade tissue, spongy tissue, and cuticles. <em>Garcinia forbesii</em> leaves contain alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and steroids. The TLC profile showed good separation of polar eluents, and yellow spots appeared after spraying DPPH reagents. The non-specific parameter test is the total ash content of 6.52±0.1%; acid insoluble ash content 1.06±0.08%; drying shrinkage 6.43±0.38%; water-soluble extracts 34.3±0.3%; and ethanol-soluble extracts 23.47±0.35%. Ethanol extract of <em>G. forbesii</em> leaves has antioxidant activity with IC<sub>50</sub> of 65.7 ppm. Pharmacognostic study fulfills the requirements, and <em>G. forbesii</em> leaves extract has strong antioxidant activity.</p> Sutomo Sutomo, Dina Noor Kamali, Arnida Arnida, Normaidah Normaidah, Agung Sriyono ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antioxidant, Antidiabetic, and Anti-obesity Potential of Ipomoea reptans Poir Leaves <p style="text-align: justify;"><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Ipomoea reptans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;Poir or kangkung is a popular leafy vegetable, a favorite to people in Asian countries. However, limited information is available on their bioactivities. In the present study, the antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-obesity potential of&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">I. reptans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;leaves were investigated. Different fractions (ethanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane) of&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">I. reptans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;leaves were evaluated for their scavenging activity on DPPH radicals, whereas their reducing potential was investigated by cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CuPRAC), total antioxidant, and reducing power assays. The antidiabetic potential was investigated by their inhibition effect on α-glucosidase. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">I. reptans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;leaves were solvent dependent. Ethyl acetate contained the highest phenolic content, followed by ethanol and hexane fractions. However, for flavonoid content, the order was ethanol &gt; ethyl acetate &gt; hexane. All fractions showed DPPH scavenging activity in a concentration-dependent manner, with activities weaker than standards ascorbic acid and BHT, in the order of ethanol &gt; ethyl acetate &gt; hexane. All fractions showed reducing capacity, but only hexane and ethanol fractions of&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">I. reptans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;leaves showed inhibition on α-glucosidase, with hexane showed more potent inhibition compared to acarbose. The study also found that fractions of&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">I. reptans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;inhibit lipase and trypsin, enzymes related to lipid metabolism. Findings in this study offer a prospect for&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">I. reptans</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;leaves as a functional food source for antioxidant, antidiabetic, and anti-obesity purposes.</span></p> Hendrik Kurniawan, Ermenilda Sonia Dacamis, Adelina Simamora, Priscilla Sari Dianauli Lumban Tobing, Ali Hanapiah, Adit Widodo Santoso ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Gossypol in Hamid and Bt (Seeni 1) Cottonseed Oil using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy <p style="text-align: justify;">This study was conducted to determine the gossypol content in Bt cottonseed (Seeni-1) oil by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy with an Attenuated Total Reflectance (ATR) element. The wavelengths used were selected by spiking refined, bleached deodorized palm oil (RBDPO) to gossypol concentrations of 0-5% and noting the regions of maximal absorbance. Absorbance values of the wavelength regions 3700-2400 &amp; 1900-750 cm<sup>−</sup><sup>1 </sup>and a partial least squares (PLS) method were used to derive calibration models for Hamid cottonseed oil, Seeni-1 cottonseed oil, and gossypol-spiked RBDPO. The coefficients of determination (<em>R</em><sup>2</sup>) for the calibration models were computed for the FTIR spectroscopy results against those found by using the wet chemical method AOCS method Ba 8–78. The <em>R</em><sup>2 </sup>was 0.8916, 0.9581, and 0.9374 for Hamid cottonseed oil, Seeni-1 cottonseed oil, and gossypol-spiked RBDPO, respectively. The standard error (SE) of the calibration was 0.053, 0.078, and 0.062, respectively. The calibration models were validated using the cross-validation technique within the same set of oil samples. The results of FTIR spectroscopy as a useful technique determining gossypol content in crude cottonseed oil showed that there is a significant difference (p &lt;0.05) in the amount of gossypol content in Hamid and Bt Seeni-1 cottonseed oils.</p> Samah AM Abdelrahman, Atif AA Yassin, Mohamed Elwathig Saeed Mirghani, Nabil HH Bashir ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Activity Prediction of Bioactive Compounds Contained in Etlingera elatior Against the SARS-CoV-2 Main Protease: An In Silico Approach <p style="text-align: justify;">The COVID-19 pandemic has become a serious problem today, with its prevalence increasing every day. The SARS-CoV-2 main protease (M<sup>Pro</sup>) is a promising therapeutic target to inhibit replicating and spreading the virus that causes COVID-19. The compounds contained in the <em>Etlingera elatior </em>plant has the potential. This study aimed to examine the compounds' activity in <em>E. elatior</em> against SARS-CoV-2 M<sup>Pro</sup> using <em>in silico</em> methods. A total of seven compounds contained in <em>E. elatior</em> were obtained from the Knapsack database. The compounds were then docked into the SARS-CoV-2 M<sup>Pro</sup> receptor's active site with the PDB ID 6LU7. Afterward, the biological activities were predicted by the PASS prediction webserver. The molecular docking results showed that ergosterol peroxide and sitostenone had the best binding energy with -10.40 kcal/mol and -9.17 kcal/mol, respectively. The <em>in silico</em> PASS prediction showed it has potential as antiviral therapy. It concluded ergosterol peroxide and sitostenone has the potential as SARS-CoV-2 M<sup>Pro</sup> inhibitor candidate.</p> Dwi Syah Fitra Ramadhan, Taufik Muhammad Fakih, Arfan Arfan ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Antibacterial Activity of Bandotan (Ageratum conyzoides L) Leaves Extracts Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus <p style="text-align: justify;">Methicillin-resistant <em>Staphylococcus aureus </em>(MRSA) is a major cause of nosocomial infections throughout the world and can be life-threatening as well. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial activity of Bandotan (<em>Ageratum conyzoides </em>L) leaves ethanolic extract against MRSA's growth. <em>Ageratum conyzoides</em> leaves were extracted by ethanol and screened for their phytochemical constituent. Ethanolic extracts of <em>A. conyzoides</em> leaves were evaluated for their potential antibacterial activity using disc diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was determined using the agar dilution method. Phytochemical screening shows that the extracts contain alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and steroids or triterpenoids. <em>Ageratum conyzoides</em> leaves extract shows a 25.1 mm inhibitory zone at 12.5% extract concentration with MIC value equivalents to 4.46 x 10<sup>-6</sup>&nbsp;g of gentamicin. This study concludes that <em>A. conyzoides</em>&nbsp;leaves ethanolic extracts have potential antibacterial activity against MRSA.</p> Selvira Anandia Intan Maulidya, Doni Anshar Nuari, Shendi Suryana, Sumia Almarifah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Determination of Antiradical Activity, Total Phenolic, and Total Flavonoid Contents of Extracts and Fractions of Langsat (Lansium domesticum Coor.) Seeds <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Lansium domesticum</em> Coor. is a fruit species from the Meliaceae family, which is a tropical plant native to Southeast Asia. Local citizens call it&nbsp;<em>langsat</em>, <em>longkong</em>, or <em>duku</em> and have used it as traditional medicine. The seeds of <em>L. domesticum </em>are used as a fever medicine, its bark is used to treat scorpion sting, and its leaves are used to repel mosquitoes. Because of its various uses, it is necessary to explore the antiradical potential of <em>L. domesticum </em>seeds. This study aims to determine the antiradical potential of <em>L. domesticum </em>seeds extract and fractions by using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and to discover compounds that act as antiradical. <em>Lansium domesticum </em>seed powder was macerated with methanol, and then the extract was concentrated using a rotary evaporator and fractionated by <em>n</em>-hexane and ethyl acetate. The antiradical assay was conducted on extract and fractions by using DPPH&nbsp;<span style="font-size: calc(var(--rem) * 1px * 1.0625); letter-spacing: 0px;">radicals</span><span style="font-size: calc(var(--rem) * 1px * 1.0625); letter-spacing: 0px;">. Phenolic and flavonoid contents from extract and fractions were also tested. The ethyl acetate fraction obtained strong antiradical potential with an IC</span><sub style="letter-spacing: 0px;">50</sub><span style="font-size: calc(var(--rem) * 1px * 1.0625); letter-spacing: 0px;"> value of 8.938 ± 0.031 µg/mL. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of ethyl acetate fraction were higher with values ​​of 58.25 ± 0.501 mgGAE/g sample and 75.123 ± 0.175 mgQE/g sample, respectively. Correlation of phenolic and flavonoid contents, which inhibited radicals had R</span><sup style="letter-spacing: 0px;">2</sup><span style="font-size: calc(var(--rem) * 1px * 1.0625); letter-spacing: 0px;"> values ​​of 0.9182 and 0.7658. Ethyl acetate fraction of </span><em>L. domesticum </em><span style="font-size: calc(var(--rem) * 1px * 1.0625); letter-spacing: 0px;">seeds had very strong antiradical activity. Further isolation is expected to be conducted to discover which compounds are the most responsible as antiradical.</span></p> Yamin Yamin, Ruslin Ruslin, Sabarudin Sabarudin, Nurramadhani A Sida, Henny Kasmawati, La Ode Muhammad Diman ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Potential of Frangipani (Plumeria alba) Leaves Extract as Ultra Violet Protection <p style="text-align: justify;">Sunlight is the source of life and energy. Besides that, sunlight also creates skin challenges such as sunburn, pigmentation, wrinkles, dermatitis, aging, and skin cancer. Natural sunscreen protection is a popular and preferred way among various regions of the world to reduce sunlight's harmful effect. This study aimed to determine the potential of frangipani (<em>Plumeria alba</em>) leaves extract in some concentrations as ultraviolet protection. <em>Plumeria alba</em> extract contained secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenolics, and alkaloids that function as impeding ultraviolet radiation. This study used an experimental method consisting of four treatments and six replications. This study shows that the extract with concentration 2500; 5000; 7500; and 10000 ppm consecutively have SPF value of 6.24; 12.00; 18.45; and 22.64. It can be concluded the <em>P. alba</em> leaves extract potential as ultraviolet protection.</p> I Gusti Ngurah Agung Windra Wartana Putra, Putu Eka Arimbawa, Ni Putu Rahayu Artini ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 Patient’s Compliance with Oral Antibiotics Treatments at Community Health Centers in Surabaya: A 20-KAO Questionnaire Development <p style="text-align: justify;">The irrational and incompliance use of antibiotics has been correlated to bacterial resistance. Several methods evaluated patients' compliance with oral antibiotics have been conducted. However, a standard questionnaire for evaluating oral antibiotics compliance in Indonesian has not been developed yet. This study was conducted to record the content validity of the developed questionnaire called 20-KAO to assess compliance with oral antibiotics. The validity content test was conducted through six experts review using the Item Content Validity Index (I-CVI) and Scale-Content Validity Index (S-CVI). The experts were also requested to provide recommendations for each item, whether revisions or deletion. After the review process, the number of questions remains unchanged. A total of 19 out of 20 items had an I-CVI of 1.00, and S-CVI was calculated at 0.98. Therefore, 20 items of the 20-KAO questionnaire have excellent content validity. However, future construct validity and reliability test to analyze the responses of targeted respondents and the questionnaire's consistency are needed.</p> Ilil Maidatuz Zulfa, Widya Handayani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Nov 2020 00:00:00 +0000 The Effect of Quality Service Towards Outpatients Satisfaction at Poasia Community Health Centre <p style="text-align: justify;">The quality of outpatient services can be measured by the SERVQUAL model that considers five dimensions: tangibles, reliability, responsiveness, assurance, and empathy. This study aimed to look at the effect of service quality on outpatient satisfaction at the Poasia community health center's pharmacy. The subjects in this study were 33 outpatients. The analysis technique used is gap analysis to compare patients' expectations and reality, normality test data based on questionnaire patient satisfaction tested for validation. This study's results indicate the average value of the gap in the Poasia community health center's pharmacy, amounting to -0.44. From the value of the gap, the lowest gap value in the pharmacy center of Poasia is the place of service and the provision of inadequate drug information of -0.88. Based on the paired t-test where a significant value &gt;0.05, Ho is rejected, and Ha accepted, which means a significant difference between the quality of service and patients' satisfaction in the Pharmacy of Puskesmas Poasia Kendari City. This study concludes that there is a significant gap between expectations and reality at the Poasia community health center's pharmacy.</p> Adryan Fristiohady, La Ode Muhammad Fitrawan, Yusniati Dwi Pemudi, Ruslin Ruslin, Sunandar Ihsan, Ruslan Ruslan, La Ode Muhammad Julian Purnama ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 30 Nov 2020 05:18:51 +0000