Borneo Journal of Pharmacy <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Title:&nbsp;</strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy<br><strong>ISSN: </strong><a href="">2621-4814</a> (Online)<br><strong>Subject: </strong>Pharmacy<br> <strong>Frequency: </strong>Quarterly (4 issues per year in February, May, August, and November) onward <strong>February 2020</strong><br><strong>Indexed at: </strong><a href="">EMBASE</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">SINTA 2</a>,<strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href=";search_type=kws&amp;search_field=doi">Dimensions</a>, <a href="">DOAJ</a>, <a href="">SHERPA RoMEO</a>, <a href="">Crossref,</a>&nbsp;<a href="">ICI</a>,&nbsp;<a href="">ResearchBib</a>, <a href=";user=R7G787AAAAAJ">Google Scholar,</a> <a href="">Garuda,</a> and more<br> <strong>DOI: </strong><a href="">10.33084/bjop</a><br><strong>Archive preservation: </strong><a href="[]=repoId:IOS6026">Indonesia OneSearch,</a><strong>&nbsp;</strong><a href="">GARUDA Ristekdikti</a><br> <strong>Publisher: </strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Researches and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a><br> <strong>Editor in Chief: </strong><a href="">Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama</a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (<em>Borneo J Pharm</em>, ISSN: <em><a href="">2621-4814</a></em> (online)) is an International Journal managed by the&nbsp;<strong><a title="Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science" href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Department of Pharmacy Faculty of Health Science</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>&nbsp;and published four times a year (in February, May, August, and November) onward February 2020 by <strong><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Institute for Researches and Community Services</a> <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya</a></strong>, contains articles of research and critical analysis studies in various topics of pharmaceutical science, including&nbsp;<strong>Pharmacology-Toxicology</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Pharmacognosy-Phytochemistry</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Pharmaceutical</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Analytical Pharmacy-Medicinal Chemistry</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Microbiology Pharmacy</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Natural Product Development</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Clinical-Community Pharmacy</strong>;&nbsp;<strong>Management Pharmacy</strong>; and other Pharmacy aspects.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">As a distinctive feature, the Borneo Journal of Pharmacy prioritizes research articles conducted on the island of Borneo (consisting of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei Darussalam), as well as those conducted by researchers from institutions on the island of Borneo. In every volume, there are always articles written by authors from the island of Borneo. However, articles from researchers outside the island of Borneo are also welcome.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><a href=""><img src="/public/site/images/adminjournal/SINTA3.png" width="84" height="30"></a></p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Borneo Journal of Pharmacy is accredited at&nbsp;<strong>"<a href="">SINTA 2</a>"</strong>&nbsp;until February 2025 by the Minister of Research and Technology/National Research and Innovation Agency, Indonesia No: 148/M/KPT/2020.</p> en-US <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors continue to retain the copyright to the article if the article is published in the <strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong>. They will also retain the publishing rights to the article without any restrictions.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Any article on the copyright is retained by the author(s).</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The author grants the journal, right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share work with an acknowledgment of the work authors and initial publications in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of published articles of work (eg, post-institutional repository) or publish it in a book, with acknowledgment of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their websites) prior to and during the submission process, as can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> <li class="show" style="text-align: justify;">The article and any associated published material are distributed under the <a href="">Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License</a>.</li> </ol> (Mohammad Rizki Fadhil Pratama) (Syahrida Dian Ardhany) Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 OJS 60 Cover, Content, and Editorial Note from Borneo J Pharm Vol. 4 No. 1 February 2021 <p style="text-align: justify;">Alhamdulillahirabbil ‘Alamin. The next edition of the&nbsp;<strong>Borneo Journal of Pharmacy</strong> (<em>Borneo J Pharm</em>), has been published in February 2021. Starting from this edition, <em>Borneo J Pharm</em> increases the frequency of publishing four times a year. This change aims to improve the circulation of the best articles published by <em>Borneo J Pharm</em>. Also, starting from this edition, <em>Borneo J Pharm</em> applying the publish-as-you-go issue to present the title of the article that has been received as early as possible in order to increase the chances of readability and quotation of articles in <em>Borneo J Pharm</em>.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">This edition includes writings from four countries including Indonesia, India, Malaysia, and Nigeria. The authors come from several institutions, including Universitas Muhammadiyah Palangkaraya, Universitas Muhammadiyah Surakarta, Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang, Universiti Teknologi MARA Cawangan Sarawak, Politeknik Bina Husada Kendari, Universitas Halu Oleo, Akademi Farmasi Surabaya, Universitas Hang Tuah, Universitas Mandala Waluya, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Universitas Abdurrab, Federal University of Technology Minna, Humera Khan College of Pharmacy, University of Abuja, and Universitas Ahmad Dahlan.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;">Editorial boards are fully aware that there is still room for improvement in this edition, hence with all humility willing to accept constructive suggestions and feedback for improvements to the publication for the next editions. The editorial board would like to thank all editors and reviewers, and contributors of the scientific articles who have provided the repertoire in this issue. We hope that all parties, especially the contributors of the articles, could re-participate for publication in the next edition in May 2021.</p> ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Phytochemical and Cytotoxic Test of Durio kutejensis Root Bark on MCF-7 Cells <p style="text-align: justify;"><em>Durio kutejensis</em>&nbsp;has known potential as herbal medicine in Kalimantan. Many things can be explored from <em>D. kutejensis</em> related pharmacological activity in every part of the plant included root bark. This study investigated the phytochemical content with a qualitative test and tested cytotoxic activities of <em>D. kutejensis</em> root bark on MCF-7 cell lines. Cytotoxic activity tested on MCF-7 cells with MTT assay method. The result showed that <em>D. kutejensis</em> root bark contains flavonoid, tannin, terpenoid, phenol, and saponin. IC<sub>50</sub> value for ethanol extracts of root bark, <em>n</em>-hexane fractions, ethyl acetate fractions, and doxorubicin on MCF-7 cells were 761.29; 280.5; 207.08; and 0.25 μg/mL, respectively. In conclusion, <em>D. kutejensis </em>root bark has some secondary metabolites but no cytotoxic activity on MCF-7 cells. Further research is needed to explore the anticancer activity of secondary metabolites on some other cancer cells and other pharmacological activities.</p> Muhammad Priyadi, Haryoto Haryoto, Amaliyah Dina Anggraeni, Heng Yen Khong ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant, and Toxicity Test with BSLT of Meistera chinensis Fruit Fraction from Southeast Sulawesi <p style="text-align: justify;">Zingiberaceae have a large number of species and still need research to reveal their chemical content. <em>Meistera chinensis</em> is one of the new generations of the Zingiberaceae family, a local and widespread plant in Konawe Regency, Southeast Sulawesi. Empirically, <em>M. chinensis</em> is used as a flavor enhancer in food, aches, and increases body immunity. There are no reports of chemical content or its biological activity. In this study, the fruit of <em>M. chinensis</em> was tested for phytochemicals, antioxidants using the ABTS test, total phenolic, total flavonoid content, and toxicity test with a lethal test for brine shrimp (BSLT). Meistera chinensis was extracted with ethanol and fractionated by ethyl acetate solvent using vacuum liquid chromatography. Phytochemical screening was carried out qualitatively by using the calorimetric method. The fraction toxicity was monitored by BSLT. These fractions for the ABTS method obtained fractions 1-8 (F1-F8) and ascorbic acid were used as controls. The results showed radical scavenging activities fraction of <em>M. chinensis</em> fruit was a very strong activity with IC<sub>50</sub> of 42.7±3.53 mg/L (F8). The total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 30.72±1.07 mgGAE/g and 8.02±0.48 mgQE/g, respectively. The phytochemical evaluation contains terpenoids, saponins, phenolics, steroids, alkaloids, and flavonoids. The BSLT toxicity test was found to be very toxic, with an IC<sub>50</sub> of 5.2±0.72 mg/L. These findings indicate that the fruit of <em>M. chinensis</em> acts as an antioxidant and toxicity agent.</p> Musdalipah Musdalipah, Selfyana Austin Tee, Karmilah Karmilah, Sahidin Sahidin, Adryan Fristiohady, Agung Wibawa Mahatva Yodha ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation and Evaluation of Solid Dispersion Chitosan Tablet from Whiteleg Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) Using PVP K-30 As a Carriers <p style="text-align: justify;">Whiteleg shrimp (<em>Litopenaeus vannamei</em>) on the market are processed or sold only to take part in the meat. The head, shell, and tail are thrown away without any prior processing. Underutilized waste causes environmental problems. An alternative to overcome this environmental disturbance phenomenon is to utilize shrimp shells containing chitin and subsequently transformed into chitosan that can be applied in various fields. Chitosan has poor solubility in water but high permeability; thus, improve bioavailability is accomplished by making solid dispersions. This study aims to formulate and evaluate the solid dispersion tablet using chitosan extract from <em>L. vannamei</em> as an active agent with PVP K-30 as a carrier. The formulation divided into three groups, that was F1 (chitosan : PVP K-30 = 1 : 1 solid dispersion), F2 (chitosan : PVP K-30 = 1 : 3 solid dispersion), and F3 (pure chitosan). The result of chitosan solid dispersion was molded into tablets by the direct compression method. The tablets were evaluated by weight and size uniformity, hardness, friability, and disintegration time. All the formulas by weight and size uniformity as well as disintegration time fulfill the requirements. The hardness of the tablets from F3 with 4,275 kg was the best from F1 and F2. By statistic analytical from weight uniformity, hardness and disintegration time give significant difference with sig. &lt;0.05.</p> Hilya Nur Imtihani, Fitria Abbas Thalib, Silfiana Nisa Permatasari ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Antioxidant and UV Protection Activities of Squid (Loligo sp.) Ink Powder Lotions <p style="text-align: justify;">Melanin is a pigment contains in human skin which role as a UV-absorbing agent. One of the exogenous melanins can be obtained from squid (<em>Loligo sp.</em>) ink. Squid ink melanin has potent free radical protection activities. This study aimed to determine the physicochemical, stability, antioxidant, and UV protection activities of squid ink powder lotions. Squid ink powders were obtained from the drying process using HCl 0.5M and stored in the climatic chamber. Antioxidant activity was conducted quantitatively using the DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil) scavenging method. The best result of the DPPH scavenging activity was 29.12±0.023%, shown from formula III. UV protection activity was conducted by observing erythema scores in animal skin, which exposure to UV. This preparation inhibits the effect of UV exposure. Squid ink powder lotions are potential as a sunscreen product.</p> Dyah Rahmasari, Aulia Juwanti, Ima Pratiwi, Novia Zulfa Diana, Raditya Weka Nugraheni, Dita Nurlita Rakhma ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 GC-MS Analysis of Bioactive Compounds in Ethanol and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Grapefruit (Citrus maxima L.) Rind <p style="text-align: justify;">The grapefruit (<em>Citrus maxima</em> L.) is a plant known by the public as a fruit consumed with various properties. This plant's use is well known, such as antioxidants, enhancing immunity, anti-aging, and antibacterial properties. This study aimed to identify and analyze the chemical compounds contained in <em>C. maxima</em> rind. The extract was obtained by the maceration method using ethanol and ethyl acetate as solvents. The fractionation process was carried out by Column Chromatography. Observation of thin-layer chromatography profiles with UV lamps 254 and 366 nm. Analysis of chemical compound components using GC-MS and data interpretation based on the Wiley 7.0 data library. The interpretation results of the EF1 fraction were β-copaen-4-α-ol, pentadecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, dotriacontane, osthol, 2H-1-benzopyran-2-one, 7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-oxobutyl), furfural, 6-(2,3-Dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl)-7-methoxycoumarin, and 6-(iodomethyl)-5-methyl-4-oxahexanolide. The chemical compounds identified in EAF2 were 1-octadecanol, decane, tetracosane, hexacosane, and 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid (2-ethylhexyl) ester. It can be concluded that these compounds have biological and pharmacological activities.</p> La Ode Muhammad Andi Zulbayu, Endang Lukitaningsih, Rumiyati Rumiyati ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 The Combination of Turmeric (Curcuma domestica) Rhizome Extract and Collagen in A Serum Formulation as an Antioxidant <p style="text-align: justify;">Turmeric (<em>Curcuma domestic</em>a) has nutritious compounds called curcuminoids, which can be used as antioxidants. As an antioxidant, <em>C. domestica</em> extract can be used to ward off free radicals that damage collagen and elastin, a protein that keeps skin moist. This study aimed to determine the antioxidant activity of serum combined with collagen's addition using the DPPH method. The DPPH was made at a concentration of 80 μg/mL, and the absorption was read at a wavelength of 520 nm using a microplate rider. The study was conducted by making six formulations: F0, F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5 obtained the results of serum made from <em>C. domestica</em> extract that could inhibit free radicals and meet the physical evaluation test requirements of serum. Furthermore, the formula was made using only one active ingredient and only collagen to determine the extract or collagen's antioxidant activity. The results obtained indicate that collagen had a supporting role in adding antioxidant activity apart from its extract. The highest % inhibition value at F5 with 90.526% could ward off free radicals.</p> Denia Pratiwi, Wahyu Margi Sidoretno, Nur Aisah ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation and Antibacterial Activity of Liquid Soap Containing Ketapang (Terminalia catappa L.) Leaves Extract <p style="text-align: justify;"><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Ketapang (</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Terminalia catappa</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;L.) is traditionally used by the community to treat the skin's infections caused by bacteria or fungi. In this study,&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">T. catappa</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;leaves extract was added to the liquid soap formula as an antibacterial. The purpose of this study was to determine the secondary metabolite compounds contained in&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">T. catappa</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;leaves extract, physical evaluation of the preparation, and antibacterial activity of liquid soap. Liquid soap formula was made with various concentrations of&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">T. catappa</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;leaves extract F0 (0%), F1 (1%), F2 (2%), and F3 (3%). The resulting soap was evaluated for organoleptic, pH, high foam, homogeneity, irritation, and its activity against&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Staphylococcus aureus</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">,&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Staphylococcus epidermidis</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">, and&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Escherichia coli</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;using the disc diffusion method. The results showed that the&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">T. catappa</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;leaves extract contained flavonoids, tannins, saponins, and triterpenoids. The liquid soap formula F0 was clear, while F1, F2, and F3 had the characteristics of brown-dark brown, homogeneous, pH between 4.6-5.2, foam stability between 67-72%, which was not significantly different and stable after five minutes of testing, and it did not irritate the skin.&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">Terminalia catappa</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">&nbsp;leaves extracts liquid soap has antibacterial activity at a concentration of 1%, 2%, and 3%, with the largest inhibition zone diameter produced by&nbsp;</span><em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">S. aureus</span></em><span data-preserver-spaces="true">.</span></p> Asiska Permata Dewi, Dini Mardhiyani ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Formulation, Organoleptic Evaluation, and Acceptability of Various Teas from Underutilized Nutritious Herbs Compared with Marketed Chinese and Yellow Lipton Tea <p style="text-align: justify;">Herbal teas are nutrient, antioxidant, and hydration-rich brews made from herbs and spices and taken for various purposes. The objective of this study was to formulate tea from clove (<em>Syzygium aromaticum</em>), leaves of lemongrass (<em>Cymbopogon citratus</em>), guava (<em>Psidium guajava</em>), and moringa (<em>Moringa oleifera),</em> as well as compared with Chinese and yellow Lipton Tea. The samples were analyzed for comparative sensory analysis using the 7 points hedonic scale. The sensory evaluation result demonstrated that the color of the clove tea sample (5.87) was most acceptable by participants, while the lemongrass tea (4.46) sample was least acceptable amongst all the tea samples. The clove remained the most accepted tea for aroma (6.07), taste (5.92), texture (5.76), general appearance (5.74), and general acceptability (5.93), in 7 points hedonic scale. However, all tea samples were had significant acceptable scores above average (p &lt;0.05). Owing to the above results, these herbs can be successfully used to produce tea of relatively good quality to encourage herbs' local consumption and stay healthy.</p> Elijah Edache Ehoche, Parth Patel, Chijioke Madu, Johnson Adejoh ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Validation of Finnish Diabetes Risk Score Indonesia Version in Yogyakarta <p style="text-align: justify;">Diabetes mellitus (DM) has developed as a major public health problem in the world. It is estimated that around 50% of diabetics have not been diagnosed in Indonesia, and only two-thirds of those diagnosed are undergoing treatment. This condition must be prevented. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Indonesian version of the Finnish Diabetes Risk Score (FINDRISC) as an instrument for predicting type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study was an observational study with a cross-sectional design on 60 research subjects who were indigenous people of Yogyakarta who live in Yogyakarta, which can be proven by Identity Cards by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Validity was tested by the validity of criteria by type while using the area under the receiver-operating curve (ROC-AUC). In contrast, reliability was tested by internal consistency using Cronbach's alpha. The results showed that as many as 14 people or 23.33% experienced uncontrolled fasting blood sugar and 15 people had a risk score of FINDRISC more than 10. Based on the ROC AUC analysis, the value of 0.935 (95% CI 0.865 1.00) with a cut-off point of 10 with the value of Sn = 85%, Sp = 95%, PPV = 85%, NPV = 95%, +LR = 5.66, and -LR = 0.15. Based on the reliability test, the Cronbach's alpha value of 0.727 was obtained. The FINDRISC questionnaire is categorized as valid and reliable so that it can be a screening tool for understanding.</p> Putri Pertiwi, Dyah Aryani Perwitasari, Satibi Satibi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Relationship Between Finnish Diabetic Risk Score (FINDRISC) with Health-Related Quality of Life in Yogyakarta <p style="text-align: justify;">The number of people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Indonesia increases every year. Control of the development of T2DM can be done by screening using Finnish Diabetic Risk Score (FINDRISC)-Indonesian. FINDRISC is a valid tool for estimating the risk of T2DM within the next 10 years. This condition can have a major impact on the estimated life span and quality of life in the future. The purpose of this research is to determine the relationship between FINDRISC-Indonesian and respondent characteristics with HRQoL from EuroQol-5 Dimension-5 Level (EQ-5D-5L) in Yogyakarta. The cross-sectional study was conducted on 125 respondents who met the inclusion criteria. The risk of developing T2DM was assessed using a validated and widely used FINDRISC (range 0-26 points), and quality of life was measured by the EQ-5D-5L instrument. Overall data were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test and Independent t-test. The results showed the domain of pain was the domain that reported most respondents' most problems (28.8%). The respondent's utility value was 0.958 ± 0.69, and the VAS value was 79.4 ± 0.7. There was a significant difference in utility value based on age characteristics (p = 0.013). There was a relationship between age and utility value (p = 0.006) and FINDRISC score with utility value (p = 0.003). This study concludes&nbsp;that a high FINDRISC score affects the quality of life, and older age has a lower quality of life.</p> Ninda Sari Wahyuningtyas, Dyah Aryani Perwitasari, Satibi Satibi ##submission.copyrightStatement## Sun, 28 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0000